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Sumqayit, also transliterated as Sumgait or Sumgayit) is the third-largest city in Azerbaijan, located near the Caspian Sea, about 31 kilometres (19 miles) away from the capital, Baku. The city has a population of around 298,000, making it the third-largest city in Azerbaijan after the capital Baku and Ganja. The city has a territory of 83 square kilometres (32 sq mi). It was founded on November 22, 1949. Two settlements are within the city administration: Jorat and Haji Zeynalabdin, a settlement named after oil businessman and philanthropist Haji Zeynalabdin Taghiyev. It is home to Sumqayit State University.

Area: 143 km²
Population: 327 291 (2013)

Currency

The boliviano (sign: Bs. or Bs; ISO 4217 code: BOB) is the currency of Bolivia. It is divided into 100 cents or centavos in Spanish.

Language: Spanish

Climate

The climate in Sumgayit is referred to as a local steppe climate. In Sumgayit, there is little rainfall throughout the year. According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as BSk. The temperature here averages 14.9 °C. About 313 mm of precipitation falls annually.
The least amount of rainfall occurs in July. The average in this month is 14 mm. With an average of 40 mm, the most precipitation falls in April.
The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 26.9 °C. February has the lowest average temperature of the year. It is 3.7 °C.
The variation in the precipitation between the driest and wettest months is 26 mm. During the year, the average temperatures vary by 23.2 °C.

Economy

In 1935, the Soviet government decided to develop heavy industry in the Absheron Peninsula, and the future location of Sumgayit was chosen based on its proximity to Baku and its key position on existing railroad lines.
Between 1938–1941, a thermal power station was constructed to power Baku’s growing petroleum industry. This was soon followed by more heavy industries. Due to World War II the construction of the area stopped and resumed in 1944, when metallurgical and chemical plants were constructed and put into operation. The first production of Sumgayit Chemical Plant led to a rapid growth and construction boom, creating a new job market, and a need for a resident population. In 1949, Sumgayit gained official city status according to resolution of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR. In 1952, a tube-rolling plant delivered its first produce thus developing black metallurgy production in Azerbaijan. The same year, another new Synthetic Rubber Production Plant started its operations producing ethylene obtained from oil.
Operations at Sumgayit Steel Processing Plant and Sumgayit Aluminium Plant were commenced in 1953 and 1955, respectively. In 1957–1955, a number of scientific research facilities and cultural centers were built, leading to further development of the city infrastructure. In 1960, authorities started building the Petroleum Chemical Factory, the largest in Europe at the time. From 1961 through 1968, a brick-producing factory, a polymer construction materials industrial complex, a phosphor production plant were built. In 1970–’80s, light industry and mechanical engineering facilities were added to the industrial base of the city. By the end of the 1980s, Sumgayit was already the center of the chemical industry of the USSR.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Sumgayit has remained Azerbaijan’s second-biggest industrial center after Baku. Some of the most significant companies operating in the city are Azerpipe, Azeraluminium, Sumqayit Aluminium, Sumqayit Superphosphate, glass producer Khazar OJSC, Sumqayit Knitted Goods Factory, and Sumqayit Compressors, many of which have been privatized.
In 2011, the development of Sumgait Technologies Park (STP) and Sumgayit Chemical Industrial Park (SCIP) started to receive investor attention. The 167-hectare (410-acre) complex will host pharmaceutical, construction, and agricultural businesses, in addition to chemical, automotive, and electronics producers. It is meant as a self-sufficient complex, which will include residential facilities, an exhibition center, laboratories, sports center, schools, and hospitals. SCIP aims to attract domestic and foreign investors, and its management has already received proposals for 20 investment projects in the complex.

Religion

Sumqayit did not have a mosque until after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the 2010s, the city has emerged as a center for Salafism in Azerbaijan, a form of Sunni Islam that advocates a return to Islam’s earliest practices. The Syrian Civil War and emergence of ISIL forced authorities to take action on crackdown of perceived religious radicals in Sumqayit.

Education

As of 2011, Sumgayit boasted 49 schools, 13 vocational and music schools, Sumgait Private Turkish High School and a teachers’ institute.
The only university in the city is Sumqayit State University. The university has seven departments and approximately 4000 students.

Transportation

The city had a tram system that functioned from 1959 to 2003. Ganja’s trolleybus system at its height, it consisted of eight lines and existed until 2006. On June 3, 2015, in Baku, President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev opened the reconstructed Baku-Sumqayit Railway with trains taking 40 minutes from Baku to Sumqayit.